dave / dst

https://github.com/dave/dst

Go
Decorated Syntax Tree - manipulate Go source with perfect fidelity.



Build Status Documentation Go Report Card stability-experimental

Decorated Syntax Tree

The dst package enables manipulation of a Go syntax tree with high fidelity. Decorations (e.g. comments and line spacing) remain attached to the correct nodes as the tree is modified.

Where does go/ast break?

The go/ast package wasn't created with source manipulation as an intended use-case. Comments are stored by their byte offset instead of attached to nodes. Because of this, re-arranging nodes breaks the output. See this golang issue for more information.

Consider this example where we want to reverse the order of the two statements. As you can see the comments don't remain attached to the correct nodes:

code := `package a

func main(){
	var a int    // foo
	var b string // bar
}
`
fset := token.NewFileSet()
f, err := parser.ParseFile(fset, "a.go", code, parser.ParseComments)
if err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

list := f.Decls[0].(*ast.FuncDecl).Body.List
list[0], list[1] = list[1], list[0]

if err := format.Node(os.Stdout, fset, f); err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

//Output:
//package a
//
//func main() {
//	// foo
//	var b string
//	var a int
//	// bar
//}

Here's the same example using dst:

code := `package a

func main(){
	var a int    // foo
	var b string // bar
}
`
f, err := decorator.Parse(code)
if err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

list := f.Decls[0].(*dst.FuncDecl).Body.List
list[0], list[1] = list[1], list[0]

if err := decorator.Print(f); err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

//Output:
//package a
//
//func main() {
//	var b string // bar
//	var a int    // foo
//}

Usage

Parsing a source file to dst and printing the results after modification can be accomplished with several Parse and Print convenience functions in the decorator package.

For more fine-grained control you can use Decorator to convert from ast to dst, and Restorer to convert back again. See the go/types section below for a demonstration.

Comments

Comments are added at decoration attachment points. See decorations-types-generated.go for a full list of these points, along with demonstration code of where they are rendered in the output.

The decoration attachment points have convenience functions Append, Prepend, Replace, Clear and All to accomplish common tasks. Use the full text of your comment including the // or /**/ markers. When adding a line comment, a newline is automatically rendered.

code := `package main

func main() {
	println("Hello World!")
}`
f, err := decorator.Parse(code)
if err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

call := f.Decls[0].(*dst.FuncDecl).Body.List[0].(*dst.ExprStmt).X.(*dst.CallExpr)

call.Decs.Start.Append("// you can add comments at the start...")
call.Decs.Fun.Append("/* ...in the middle... */")
call.Decs.End.Append("// or at the end.")

if err := decorator.Print(f); err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

//Output:
//package main
//
//func main() {
//	// you can add comments at the start...
//	println /* ...in the middle... */ ("Hello World!") // or at the end.
//}

Line spacing

The Space property marks the node as having a line space (new line or empty line) before the node. These spaces are rendered before any decorations attached to the Start decoration point. The After property is similar but rendered after the node (and after any End decorations).

code := `package main

func main() {
	println(a, b, c)
}`
f, err := decorator.Parse(code)
if err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

call := f.Decls[0].(*dst.FuncDecl).Body.List[0].(*dst.ExprStmt).X.(*dst.CallExpr)

call.Decs.Space = dst.EmptyLine
call.Decs.After = dst.EmptyLine

for _, v := range call.Args {
	v := v.(*dst.Ident)
	v.Decs.Space = dst.NewLine
	v.Decs.After = dst.NewLine
}

if err := decorator.Print(f); err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

//Output:
//package main
//
//func main() {
//
//	println(
//		a,
//		b,
//		c,
//	)
//
//}

Common properties

The common decoration properties (Start, End, Space and After) occur on all nodes, and can be accessed with the Decorations() method on the Node interface:

code := `package main

func main() {
	var i int
	i++
	println(i)
}`
f, err := decorator.Parse(code)
if err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

list := f.Decls[0].(*dst.FuncDecl).Body.List

list[0].Decorations().Space = dst.EmptyLine
list[0].Decorations().End.Append("// the Decorations method allows access to the common")
list[1].Decorations().End.Append("// decoration properties (Space, Start, End and After)")
list[2].Decorations().End.Append("// for all nodes.")
list[2].Decorations().After = dst.EmptyLine

if err := decorator.Print(f); err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

//Output:
//package main
//
//func main() {
//
//	var i int  // the Decorations method allows access to the common
//	i++        // decoration properties (Space, Start, End and After)
//	println(i) // for all nodes.
//
//}

Newlines as decorations

The Space and After properties cover the majority of cases, but occasionally a newline needs to be rendered inside a node. Simply add a \n decoration to accomplish this.

Apply function from astutil

The dstutil package is a fork of golang.org/x/tools/go/ast/astutil, and provides the Apply function with similar semantics.

Integrating with go/types

Adapting the go/types package to use dst as input is non-trivial because go/types uses position information in several places. A work-around is to convert from ast to dst using Decorator. After conversion, this exposes DstNodes and AstNodes which map between ast.Node and dst.Node. This way, the go/types package can be used:

code := `package main

func main() {
	var i int
	i++
	println(i)
}`

// Parse the code to AST
fset := token.NewFileSet()
astFile, err := parser.ParseFile(fset, "a.go", code, parser.ParseComments)
if err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

// Invoke the type checker using AST as input
typesInfo := types.Info{
	Defs:	make(map[*ast.Ident]types.Object),
	Uses:	make(map[*ast.Ident]types.Object),
}
conf := &types.Config{}
if _, err := conf.Check("a", fset, []*ast.File{astFile}, &typesInfo); err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

// Decorate the *ast.File to give us a *dst.File
dec := decorator.New()
f := dec.Decorate(fset, astFile).(*dst.File)

// Find the *dst.Ident for the definition of "i"
dstDef := f.Decls[0].(*dst.FuncDecl).Body.List[0].(*dst.DeclStmt).Decl.(*dst.GenDecl).Specs[0].(*dst.ValueSpec).Names[0]

// Find the *ast.Ident using the AstNodes mapping
astDef := dec.AstNodes[dstDef].(*ast.Ident)

// Find the types.Object corresponding to "i"
obj := typesInfo.Defs[astDef]

// Find all the uses of that object
var astUses []*ast.Ident
for id, ob := range typesInfo.Uses {
	if ob != obj {
		continue
	}
	astUses = append(astUses, id)
}

// Find each *dst.Ident in the DstNodes mapping
var dstUses []*dst.Ident
for _, id := range astUses {
	dstUses = append(dstUses, dec.DstNodes[id].(*dst.Ident))
}

// Change the name of the original definition and all uses
dstDef.Name = "foo"
for _, id := range dstUses {
	id.Name = "foo"
}

// Print the DST
if err := decorator.Print(f); err != nil {
	panic(err)
}

//Output:
//package main
//
//func main() {
//	var foo int
//	foo++
//	println(foo)
//}

If you would like to help create a fully dst compatible version of go/types, feel free to continue my work in the types branch.

Status

This is an experimental package under development, but the API is not expected to change much going forward. Please try it out and give feedback.

Chat?

Feel free to create an issue or chat in the #dst Gophers Slack channel.

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